Knee Replacement/ Knee Arthoplasty


Knee replacement surgery, or knee arthroplasty, is a procedure performed to remove a severely damaged knee joint and replace it with an artificial knee joint composed of metal alloys, high-grade plastics, and polymers. Knee joints are commonly replaced due to osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or severe injury to the knee.

The Knee

The knee is composed of several major parts, including: the femur (lower end of the thighbone), tibia (the shin bone), and the patella (the knee cap). The femur rotates on the tibia’s upper end and the patella slides in a groove on the end of the Femur. The knee pivots at the point where the thighs meet the lower leg.


Knee replacement surgeries are most commonly performed to treat severe joint damage caused by osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Meniscus tears, cartilage defects, and severe ligament tears can also necessitate this procedure.

Signs & Symptoms

Some signs and symptoms that may necessitate a full evaluation for a knee replacement by a physician include: knee pain that is disabling, difficulty walking up or down stairs, difficulty standing up from a seated position, moderate to severe knee pain while at rest, failure of previous knee pain treatments, or a knee deformity.


First, a tourniquet is placed above the knee and the knee is bent into a position which makes visible all surfaces of the joint. An incision is made in front of the knee, exposing the knee joint.

Next, damaged bone and cartilage are cut away from the thigh bone, shin bone, and knee. The surfaces of the knee are then shaped to hold the prosthesis. The prosthesis is inserted and attached to the thigh bone, shin, and knee cap using either cement or other material.

Before the incision is closed, the knee is bent and rotated to make sure it is properly functioning.